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What are the health benefits of lemons vs. limes?

Lemons and limes are types of citrus fruit with very similar nutritional profiles and health benefits. However, there are also some differences between them.

Lemons come from a small evergreen tree native to South Asia.

Several types of citrus tree can produce limes, such as the key lime tree, which is native to Southeast Asia.

This article will discuss the similarities and differences between these fruits, including their health benefits, nutritional contents, and uses.

Health benefits Lemons and limes
Lemons and limes contain lots of vitamin C, flavonoids, and antioxidants.

Both lemons and limes have a long history of use in traditional medicine. They each contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals and provide a range of health benefits.

People also make claims about the health benefits of lemon water and the potential benefits of drinking lime juice.

Lemons and limes have several shared health benefits because they share the following properties:

They contain lots of vitamin C

Both lemons and limes are high in vitamin C, an important antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage.

Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from foods and supports the immune system.

The body also uses vitamin C in the production of collagen, an important substance for healing wounds.

They contain flavonoids

Lemons and limes both contain flavonoids. Flavonoids are phytochemicals that may have several health benefits, such as for heart disease and metabolic disorders.

Animal and cell studies have suggested that flavonoids have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cancer-fighting, and neuroprotective properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects in humans.

Research into flavonoids is still in its early stages, but the initial findings are promising.

They contain antioxidants

Along with vitamin C, lemons and limes also contain other antioxidants.

Antioxidants help protect the body from cell damage, which appears to play a role in a range of chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and dementia.

It is possible that antioxidants also help prevent these conditions from developing. However, again, research into this area is ongoing.

They may aid weight loss over time

Some sources claim that consuming lemon, or lemon-based products, can help with weight loss. For example, lemon water is a mixture of fresh lemon juice and water and is a part of some weight loss diets.

However, there is currently no scientific evidence to prove that lemon, or any lemon-based product, can result in weight loss above what adequate hydration promotes. Learn more about the lemon detox diet here.

Lemons can form part of a healthful diet that eventually leads to weight loss, but this is likely to be as a result of a reduced calorie intake, regular exercise, and other more substantial lifestyle improvements.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Nutrition Lemons and limes share a similar nutritional profile, as we detail in the table below. These nutrients reflect what is present in a whole lemon or lime, not in the juice. 1 lemon, 84 g 1 lime, 67 g Macronutrients Calories 24.4 20.1 Protein 0.92 g 0.47 g Fat 0.25 g 0.13 g Carbohydrates (total) 7.83 g 7.06 g Sugars 2.1 g 1.13 g Fiber 2.35 g 1.88 g Vitamins and minerals Calcium 21.8 mg 22.1 mg Potassium 116 mg 68.3 mg Vitamin C 44.5 mg 19.5 mg Folate 9.24 mcg 5.36 mcg The nutritional benefits of lemons and limes are the same. Although lemons have slightly more of some vitamins and minerals, the difference is too small to have any effect. Acidity Both lemons and limes are high in citric acid. This means that they are acidic compared with many other foods. Lemons and limes have very similar citric acid content, though lemons may have slightly more on average: Lemon juice contains around 48 grams of citric acid per liter (g/L). Lime juice contains around 45.8 g/L. Uses Lemon rind
Lemon and lime rinds are popular in cooking. Many foods and drinks contain lemons or limes due to their strong, sour flavours. This might be in the form of premade or freshly squeezed juice, or as chunks or slices of the fruit. The fruits' rinds have unique bitter flavors that make them popular in cooking. For example, people can use the juice or peel from both fruits for flavoring sauces, marinades, and salad dressings. Also, lemon and thyme is a good combination for marinating chicken and fish. Lime works well with garlic, as well as with chilli powder for marinating meats. Lemons and limes are good additions to many hot or cold drinks. For example, a person can add chunks of lemon or lime to water to make citrus water, or they can use lemon or lime to flavor teas. Due to their high acidity, these citrus fruits are also effective at killing bacteria. Because of this, a range of citrus-based cleaning products are available, from bleaches to surface cleaners. Also, some studies have shown that the essential oil of lemon and other citrus fruits can enhance mental state through inhalation and aromatherapy, exert antimicrobial properties, and reduce skin inflammation through the topical application of the peel. Risks Consuming lemons or limes in moderate amounts is generally safe. However, the fruits can cause a stinging pain when in contact with open wounds, such as a cut lip or a mouth ulcer. Their high acidity also means that they may worsen heartburn or digestive issues in people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In large amounts, citric fruits can erode tooth enamel and cause cavities over time. When using cleaning products that contain citrus or other irritating chemicals, use gloves and avoid contact with the skin. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Lemons and limes are citric fruits with very similar nutritional profiles. They are rich in vitamin C and contain other antioxidants and flavonoids that are beneficial to health. Both fruits are common ingredients in a variety of foods and drinks. Their acidity also makes them good for use in cleaning products. Both fruits are safe to consume in moderate amounts, but they can cause minor issues in some people, such as worsening the symptoms of GERD due to their acidity.
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What to know about nitroglycerin

When something restricts blood flow to the heart muscle, a person can experience intense chest pain that doctors call angina. People often use the drug nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain that angina causes.

Most often, the reason for the decrease in blood flow is plaque formation and narrowing of the arteries supplying blood to the heart.

Nitroglycerin helps to open up the blood vessels and allow blood to flow. People also use nitroglycerin to treat chronic anal fissures.

In this article, we provide an overview of nitroglycerin, including its uses, how it works, and the possible side effects, interactions, and warnings.

What is nitroglycerin, and how does it work? senior man using nitroglycerin spray
A person can use nitroglycerin to relieve angina symptoms.

Nitroglycerin is a medication that treats angina and chronic anal fissures. It works by promoting blood flow.

The body breaks nitroglycerin down into nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes the smooth muscle within the blood vessels to relax. This allows the arteries and veins to open up, allowing more blood to flow through. Healthcare professionals call this action vasodilation.

During an angina attack, a person will experience intense chest pain. Nitroglycerin will start working within 1 to 3 minutes, but its maximal effect occurs after 5 minutes.

When people use nitroglycerin for anal fissures, the ointment will relax the anal sphincter, which is the muscle tissue around the anus, and lower the pressure in the anus. This promotes blood flow to the area and helps heal the fissure.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Uses Doctors usually use nitroglycerin to treat the pain that angina causes. Narrowing of the arteries that supply the heart with blood is what causes unstable angina. Doctors call this condition coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is the most common type of heart disease. More than 370,000 people in the United States die every year because of CAD. Nitroglycerin allows the blood vessels to open up, which lets oxygen and nutrient-rich blood feed the heart muscle. This action offers immediate relief from chest pain. People can also use nitroglycerin to treat anal fissures. Anal fissures are tears in the skin of the anus. People can get anal fissures from passing hard stools. Similarly to its effects for angina, nitroglycerin as a rectal ointment helps the healing process by stimulating blood flow to the affected area. How to take it The following table lists the different formulations of nitroglycerin. Form of nitroglycerin How to use aerosol solution
tablet dissolve under the tongue ointment
24-hour patch apply to the skin rectal ointment rectal use only Angina When someone is having intense chest pain, it is vitalto resolve this symptom as quickly as possible. People can also take fast-acting nitroglycerin formulations 5 to 10 minutes before doing an activity that may cause an angina attack. The aerosol spray, pumpspray, packet, and tablet are all fast-acting forms of nitroglycerin. Aerosol spray and pumpspray People can use these devices by giving one or two sprays on or under the tongue once a person feels angina pains. They should not inhale the spray. Packet A sublingual packet of nitroglycerin contains 400 micrograms (mcg) of nitroglycerin powder. A person places the contents of the packet under their tongue when angina pains begin. Tablet At the first signs of angina pains, a person should place the tablet under their tongue or between the gums and the cheek. The tablet will dissolve and absorb through the tissues of the mouth. People who use the aerosol spray, pumpspray, packet, or tablet should not swallow the drug. Nitroglycerin will absorb through the mouth tissues. This provides faster relief than swallowing the medicine. People should also avoid rinsing or spitting for 5 minutes after administering the dose. A person can take each of these forms of fast-acting nitroglycerin at 5-minute intervals. If they do not feel relief from the intense chest pain, they can take two more doses 5 minutes apart. If someone has taken three doses of either fast-acting formulations and does not experience any pain relief, they should seek medical attention immediately. There are also two other formulations of nitroglycerin that can prevent angina attacks. These are not fast-acting, and people should not use them to stop an attack when it is happening. Patch Nitroglycerin patches come in doses ranging from 0.1 milligrams per hour (mg/hr) to 0.8 mg/hr. A person places the patch on their skin anywhere except the areas below the knee and elbow. Most people place the patch on their chest. The area should be clean, dry, and hairless to allow the nitroglycerin to absorb across the skin. A person should leave the patch on the skin for 12 to 14 hours and remove it for 10 to 12 hours. People will usually have the patch on during the day and remove it during sleep. Ointment close up of hands with tube of ointment
A person can apply nitroglycerin ointment to the skin twice a day. People can apply nitroglycerin ointment to their skin using a dose-measuring applicator that comes with the tube. A person will measure the desired dose onto the measuring applicator and then place the applicator ointment side down on the skin. They then spread the ointment across the skin. The person should not rub the medicine in but allow the ointment to absorb across the skin. Finally, they tape the applicator to the skin. People take two doses of ointment each day. Doctors will tell people to use the ointment first thing in the morning and then reapply it 6 hours later. Anal fissures The rectal ointment for anal fissures contains 0.4% nitroglycerin. A person will insert the ointment into their anus every 12 hours for up to 3 weeks. To apply the rectal ointment, a person will cover their finger with plastic wrap and squeeze out 1 inch of ointment along the finger. They then insert the finger into the anal canal up to the first finger joint. The person will then smear the ointment around the area. If this is too painful, the person may apply the ointment to the outside of the anus instead. Side effects People may experience many side effects when using nitroglycerin, including: When people take nitroglycerin for relieving angina, they should be in a relaxed, seated position. An individual's blood pressure can drop significantly after using nitroglycerin. If they stand up too quickly after administering the dose, their blood pressure may drop even lower and put them at risk of fainting. The most common side effect of long-acting nitroglycerin is headaches, but this side effect decreases with use. Although the rectal ointment is only put in the anus, a person may still experience headache and dizziness. Precautions and risks Some people may be allergic to nitroglycerin, and doctors do not recommend that people use it if they have a history of allergic reactions to nitroglycerin. Doctors will not prescribe nitroglycerin to anyone with a history of severe anemia, heart attack occurring on the right side of the heart, or increased pressure in the brain. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Interactions Nitroglycerin may interact with certain other medications. PDE-5 inhibitors are drugs that doctors give to treat erectile dysfunction in males. Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra are PDE-5 inhibitors. As with nitroglycerin, these drugs also cause increased blood flow and can lower blood pressure. Doctors do not recommend that people use nitroglycerin with PDE-5 inhibitors, as they can cause fainting if someone is taking them together. Males should avoid using nitroglycerin if they have taken Viagra or Levitra within the last 24 hours or Cialis within the previous 48 hours. Any person using long-acting nitroglycerin cannot take PDE-5 inhibitors. Overdose senior lady holding head in pain
Throbbing headaches can be a sign of a nitroglycerin overdose. An overdose of nitroglycerin may occur when people use PDE-5 inhibitors with nitroglycerin or if they use too much nitroglycerin during an attack. Severe side effects that healthcare professionals associate with a nitroglycerin overdose include: a sudden drop in blood pressure increased heart rate increased blood flow and pressure in the brain throbbing headaches confusion dizziness disturbances in vision Currently, no drug can reverse a nitroglycerin overdose. Doctors can provide care to people experiencing an overdose by giving intravenous fluids and elevating their legs. Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Summary Using nitroglycerin in the appropriate way can delay the serious complications of angina that can include heart attack, stroke, and even death. People may experience side effects with nitroglycerin and should remain seated while the drug is having its effect. Nitroglycerin can interact with medications for erectile dysfunction. Males with angina should report the use of Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra to their doctor because the use of both drugs together may be dangerous. People can also treat anal fissures with nitroglycerin rectal ointment. Side effects and interactions can also occur with topical use of nitroglycerin.
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Supplement for joint pain linked to lower heart disease risk

Glucosamine, a dietary supplement that people commonly take to ease joint pain and reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis, may lower the risk of cardiovascular problems, according to a study analyzing health data from over 400,000 participants.
small jar of white capsules
Does glucosamine, a popular dietary supplement, have a preventive effect against heart disease?

Information from the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health shows that about 2.6% of adults in the United States — which equates to 6.5 million people — take glucosamine, chondroitin, or both. These two dietary supplements treat joint pain and strengthen cartilage, respectively.

This statistic makes glucosamine one of the most popular supplements among the U.S. adult population.

Now, researchers from Tulane University in New Orleans, LA, have carried out a large observational study and found that people who take glucosamine may also have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and adverse health events relating to the heart or the vascular system, such as stroke.

The research team, which Prof. Lu Qi from Tulane led, accessed the U.K. Biobank study database to use available data from 466,039 participants. None of these participants had cardiovascular disease at baseline, and they all submitted information on their use of dietary supplements.

Among these participants, 19.3% — or about one in five — said that they took glucosamine when they joined the study.

The study's findings, which appear in the BMJ, suggest that taking glucosamine on a regular basis may help prevent cardiovascular problems. However, the current study is observational, and the authors warn that further trials should test whether there is a causal relationship behind this association.

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Prof. Qi and team looked at the participants' hospital records and, when necessary, their death records over an average follow-up period of 7 years. They noted whether each participant developed cardiovascular disease, experienced any cardiovascular problems — including coronary heart disease and stroke — or died due to cardiovascular disease.

The researchers found that people who had reported using this supplement had a 15% lower risk of experiencing a cardiovascular disease-related event compared with participants who did not take glucosamine. They also had a 9–22% lower risk of developing coronary heart disease, experiencing a stroke, and dying from cardiovascular-related causes.

These associations were independent of modifying factors, such as a person's age, biological sex, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle and diet, and medication and supplement use, for which the researchers accounted.

At the same time, Prof. Qi and colleagues also noted that these associations were stronger in current smokers, who saw a 37% lower risk of heart disease with glucosamine supplementation, than in former smokers and never-smokers, whose risk was 18% and 12% lower respectively.

The researchers hypothesize that if there is a causal explanation, it may lie in certain biological mechanisms that relate to inflammation. For instance, they note that there is an association between glucosamine use and lower levels of C-reactive protein in the body.

Researchers have linked this protein to heightened inflammation. Therefore, glucosamine may actually help reduce that inflammation, which is present at higher levels in smokers than in never-smokers and former smokers.

Another hypothesis is that taking glucosamine may have similar effects to following a diet low in carbohydrates, which studies have also tied to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

The study authors conclude their paper by saying:

"Habitual use of glucosamine supplement to relieve osteoarthritis pain might also be related to lower risks of [cardiovascular disease] events."

However, they also caution that, due to the observational nature of this study, "[f]urther clinical trials are needed to test this hypothesis."

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What to know about raisins

In general, and when people consume them in moderation, raisins are a healthful, tasty food to add to the diet. Raisins are a good source of essential nutrients, minerals, and energy in the form of calories and sugars.

Raisins themselves make a quick and simple snack throughout the day. People can use them as a topping for yogurt or cereals, and they can also include them in many other products, such as baked goods, trail mix, and granola.

Benefits Raisins on a wooden spoon
Raisins can aid digestion and fight cancer cells.

Raisins can be a helpful and beneficial addition to the diet.

Aid in digestion

Raisins may be a simple way to help keep the digestive system healthy. Raisins contain helpful soluble fibers, which give body to the stool and help it pass through the intestines easier. This may help improve digestion and promote regularity.

Prevent anemia

Raisins may play a part in preventing anemia. They contain good amounts of iron, copper, and vitamins that are essential for making red blood cells and carrying oxygen throughout the body.

Prevent too much acidity

Raisins contain substantial amounts of beneficial minerals, such as iron, copper, magnesium, and potassium. These are alkaline, or basic, minerals on the pH scale and may help balance acidity levels in the stomach.

Lower risk of heart disease risk factors

A study posted to Postgraduate Medicine noted that regularly eating raisins may help reduce cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure rate, when compared to other snacks. This is because raisins are a low sodium food that also contains a good source of potassium, which helps the blood vessels relax.

Fight against cancer cells

Raisins are also a good source of antioxidant compounds.

Dietary antioxidants are essential, as they may protect the body from oxidative damage and free radicals. Oxidative damage and free radicals are risk factors in many types of cancer, tumor growth, and aging.

Protect eye health

Raisins contain polyphenols, which are antioxidants that may protect the cells in the eyes from free radical damage. This may in turn help protect the eyes from eye disorders, such as age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.

Improve skin health

Antioxidants may help keep the skin cells young and prevent damage from aging cells. Raisins also contain valuable nutrients, such as vitamin C, selenium, and zinc. This combination of nutrients and antioxidants may be a helpful addition to a diet that focuses on creating good skin health.

Lower blood sugar

The Postgraduate Medicine study also noted that compared to eating other snacks, regularly eating raisins may help lower a person's blood sugar. Even though raisins contain a more concentrated amount of sugars than fresh fruit, raisin intake compared to processed snacks decreased hemoglobin a1c, which is a marker of blood sugar management.

This means that a serving of raisins may be an excellent way to satisfy a sweet craving.

Thank you for supporting Medical News Today Are there risks of eating raisins? While raisins are generally beneficial, there are some times when raisins may not be the best snack. For instance, people looking to reduce their calorie intake may want to be careful about eating large amounts of raisins. While a single raisin contains the same number of calories as a single grape, raisins are much smaller. This can easily lead to eating too many calories. Another concern about eating too many raisins is the increase in soluble fiber. Too much fiber may cause gastrointestinal upset, such as cramps, gas, and bloating. Some people may even develop diarrhea. However, it is important to note that this would only result from eating a significant amount of raisins since they do not contain excessively high amounts of fiber. Lastly, because of their small size, people prone to choking and small children may need to avoid raisins and opt for fresh fruit instead. However, enjoying raisins in moderation is generally safe. Nutrition of raisins Raisins and grapes
A typical serving of raisins contains 129 calories and 1.42 g of protein. Raisins are dried grapes, which are the fruit from the Vitis vinifera plant. Because of this, their nutritional content will be similar to that of grapes. There are some exceptions, however. For instance, while both are good sources of certain antioxidants, raisins may contain higher levels than grapes. This is because the drying process preserves the antioxidants. The drying also significantly decreases the vitamin C content. A typical serving size of raisins is about 1 ounce (oz), a small box, or about 40–50 grams (g). According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the nutritional facts for a serving around this size are: Calories – 129 Protein – 1.42 g Fats – 0.11 g Carbohydrates – 34.11 g Sugars – 28.03 g Dietary fiber – 1.9 g The same serving size also contains some valuable vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin C – 1 milligram (mg) Calcium – 27 mg Iron – 0.77 mg Magnesium – 15 mg Potassium – 320 mg Phosphorous – 42 mg Sodium – 11 mg As a study posted to the Journal of Nutritional Health notes, raisins have very high antioxidant levels and phenol content compared to other popular dried fruits. Specifically, raisins are a good source of antioxidants called flavonol glycosides and phenolic acids, and they have an ORAC value of about 3,400. ORAC stands for oxygen radical absorbance capacity and reflects the antioxidant value of a food. It is worth noting that while the types of antioxidants and ORAC score of a fruit are important, it is crucial that these antioxidants are bioavailable, meaning the body can use them easily. The review notes that the body can use antioxidants in raisins efficiently, which may make them a simple and effective source of dietary antioxidants. Can you make your own raisins? Raisins are the result of removing the moisture from a grape. Standard raisins typically derive from seedless grapes, though it is possible to produce raisins from most grapes. While store-bought raisins are generally all natural, and inexpensive, with organic options available, some people prefer making their own. Luckily, making raisins is simple and straightforward using either a food dehydrator or oven. Follow these steps to make raisins in a dehydrator or oven: Thoroughly wash the grapes, picking out any damaged grapes. Strain the extra water in a colander. Bring a pot of water to a boil and add the grapes for a minute or so, just long enough to soften the skin. Strain the grapes again and remove all excess moisture. Add the grapes to an oiled baking tray or clean dehydrator tray. For ovens, cook the grapes at 225°F for about 3 hours. For dehydrators, set the temperature to 135°F and dehydrate for about 24 hours or until the excess moisture is gone. Store uneaten raisins in an airtight container. Raisins make a great addition to many diets. Eat them alone or enjoy them in a variety of other ways, such as: sprinkled on a fresh green salad added to a cooked broccoli salad or coleslaw sprinkled on oatmeal or other breakfast cereals added to some curries or spiced rice dishes added to baked goods or pancakes to add sweetness without refined sugar Summary Raisins can be a simple way to add fruit, healthful nutrients and antioxidants to the diet. Regularly eating raisins may help keep the body healthy and prevent some disorders. However, it is essential to eat raisins in moderation as they are high in sugars and calories, which may be an important factor for people to consider if they are trying to lose weight. Overall, raisins are a healthful food and make a great addition to many diets.
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Does soy protein reduce 'bad' cholesterol? The debate continues

There is an ongoing debate surrounding soy protein and its influence on cholesterol. A new meta-analysis digs into the existing data and concludes that the protein does, indeed, reduce levels of "bad" cholesterol.
Edamame soy beans
Soy protein and cholesterol: The debate rages on.

Soy protein is derived from soybeans. It is high in protein but contains no cholesterol and only low levels of saturated fat.

Soybeans are among the few vegetable-based foods that contain all of the essential amino acids.

As it stands, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes soy protein in its list of foods that can lower cholesterol.

However, they are considering removing it from this list because studies have provided inconsistent results.

If the FDA do remove it, manufacturers who market products that include soy would no longer be able to label them as heart-healthy. The FDA are basing their potential change in stance on the findings of 46 trials.

Recently, researchers — many from St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Canada — decided to revisit the data and run a meta-analysis on the papers in question.

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Revisiting the soy debate

Of the 46 studies that the FDA had chosen, 43 provided enough data to be added to the scientists' analysis. In total, 41 studies looked specifically at low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, commonly called bad cholesterol.

LDL cholesterol earns its bad name because, when it builds up in arteries, it increases the risk of stroke and heart disease. Any food that can reduce this risk is of great interest.

The authors recently published the results of their analysis in The Journal of Nutrition. They conclude:

"Soy protein significantly reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 3–4% in adults. Our data support the advice given to the general public internationally to increase plant protein intake."

Although the effect size seems small, the results are significant. The authors also believe that, in the real world, the effect may be stronger. They argue that when someone adds soy protein to their diet, in most cases, it will replace other sources of protein that have high levels of LDL cholesterol, such as meat and dairy.

Dr. David Jenkins, who led the study, explains, "When one adds the displacement of high saturated fat and cholesterol-rich meats to a diet that includes soy, the reduction of cholesterol could be greater."

A study published in 2010 examines this displacement. The authors concluded that when combining direct LDL reduction from soy protein with displacement, overall, LDL cholesterol would be reduced by 3.6–6.0%.

Limitations and high hopes

As the authors of the recent investigation explain, a significant limitation of their research is that it only looked at a small subset of relevant studies. However, the purpose of this study was to test the strength of the FDA's conclusions using the very data that they had used to draw their conclusions.

The authors write that "These data were extracted by the FDA as representing those trials on which a final decision would be made concerning the soy protein health claim. Because we are addressing the question raised by the FDA, our inclusion criteria included only those trials selected by the FDA."

It is also worth noting that the studies that the scientists analyzed only used a total of 2,607 participants; of these, only 37% were men. Also, the majority of women that were involved in these trials were postmenopausal. In other words, the demographics of the studies do not match the demographics of the public at large.

However, to reiterate, the main thrust of this study was not to collate all relevant data; it was specifically designed to test the FDA's change in stance.

Dr. Jenkins concludes simply, "The existing data and our analysis of it suggest soy protein contributes to heart health."

Other official bodies, including Heart UK, the European Atherosclerosis Society, the National Cholesterol Education Program, and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society include soy protein as a heart-healthy food.

The authors hope that the FDA will consider their meta-analysis when discussing whether to keep soy protein in their heart-healthy category.

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